Dheeran Chinnamalai

 

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The Polygar Wars

While 1857 is often regarded as the first large scale revolt against British rule, there were many localized revolts that broke out. And one of them was the Polygar Wars down South between March 1799 to July 1805.  This was one of the bloodiest revolts ever faced by the British, fought primarily in Tamil Nadu, the Malabar region. And contrary to what most historians claim, the British did not have an easy run, the Polygar Wars were the most serious and bloodiest  challenge to their hegemony. The 6 long years, saw a large number of losses on the British side and they had to taste defeat in many a battle. And the major players in the Polygar Wars actually challenged and outwitted the British, head to head. In most cases, it took some cunning and treachery to capture and execute these warriors.

The Polygars or Palegars or Palayakarrars as they were called, were primarily small time chieftains, who rose to prominence during the Vijayanagara Empire. Renowned for their fighting capabilities, the Polygars were the sword arm of the Vijayanagara Rayas, and most had their own private armies, that did duty during major battles. Also the Polygars were well acquainted with the latest artillery, and were trained by the French, in the end most were done in by betrayal of fellow chieftains.  Some of the legends of the Polygar Wars included Veera Pandya Kattaboman and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja.

One such great warrior was Dheeran Chinnamalai,  born as Theerthagiri on April 17, 1756, at Melyapalam in Erode district, to Rathina Swamy and Periyaatha. He had an elder brother Kulandhaisamy and three younger brothers-Thambi, Kilothar and Kuttisamy and Parvatham, his younger sister.

His grandfather Kottravel Sarkkarai Mandraadiaar was one of the larger land owners, and his father looked after their lands in Melyapalam. While Kulandhaisamy and Kuttisamy, were involved in farming, Theerthagiri along with Thambi and Kilothar took care of administration and safety of the villages under their jurisdiction. Along with his brothers he  was well trained in the martial arts, archery, horse riding.  They also took part in village panchayats, and learnt how to settle family and land disputes.

The Kongu region, then was part of the Mysore kingdom under Hyder Ali, during the later half of the 18th century.  The diwan Muhammad Ali who was in charge of tax collection, followed rather unfair practices, sometimes even grabbing lands. Theerthagiri and his brother confronted Muhammad Ali between Sennimalai and Shivanmalai, and recovered the taxes he had forcibly collected. A furious Muhammad Ali, threatened them that Kongu being under Hyder Ali, the consequences would be severe. Theerthagiri shot back, saying Kongu would not accept Hyder’s rule, and it was capable of governing itself.  And this was when he got the name of  Chinnamalai, when it’s believed he stated to the Diwan- “I am Chinnamalai who reigns between Sennimalia and Shivanmalai”.

Hyder Ali, as expected struck back, sending an army to Kongu to attack Chinnamalai.  However Chinnamali, routed Hyder’s army on the banks of the Noyyal river. This only enraged Muhammad Ali even more, and vowed to wreak vengenance. Knowing Ali’s intentions, Chinnamalai himself began to build up his army. However Hyder was more preoccupied with the Nizam, British and Marathas, with whom he was in constant conflict, and so that attack never took place.

When Tipu Sultan took over in 1782, he adopted an even  more aggressive policy towards the British.  And in order to fight against the British, he requested the Tamils of Kongu, to help him out. Dheeran and his brothers responded to that, as also their trusted commanders, Velappan and Karuppan. Chinnamalai himself was the commander of the Kongu regiment in the Mysore Army, and took active part in the 3rd and 4th Mysore Wars.  However with the death of Tipu in 1799, Chinnamalai returned to Kongu along with Karuppan. Velappan however was captured by the British and he later became their agent.  Chinnamalai, had the benefit of receiving French training during his stint with Tipu Sultan.

On his return to Kongu, Chinnamalai built a fortress at Odaanillai and settled there along with his army, waiting for the right time to strike.  He also reached out to the rulers of Malabar and Salem, hoping for a larger alliance against the British.  Recognizing that Chinnamalai was a grave danger, the British tried to get him to sign a pact, where he was promised favors in return for accepting their sovereignity. He however refused to sign the pact, fully knowing it would result in war.

Chinnamalai’s defiance annoyed the British, a man with no title, technically not a ruler, yet refusing to accept their sovereignity, this when most of the Rajahs had surrendered to them.  In 1801, they sent a troop of soldiers under Colonel Maxwell, however Chinnamalai having got advance news of the attack,  defeated the British on the banks of the Noyyal. Maxwell returned again in 1802, and a long siege of Odaanillai fort, ended in total defeat for the British, and Maxwell himself was beheaded.

The British though furious, waited for the right opportunity and they got it in 1804, when during a particular day, Chinnamalai and his entire army would be attending the Arasalur Amman temple festivities. They felt this was the best chance and sent an army to capture Odaanilai under General Harris, who had led the campaigns in Mysore.  Chinnamalai however got the news, and stayed back at the fort, with his contingent, while some went to the temple. Harris was taken by surprise when he attacked the fort, and Chinnamalai stormed out, throwing hand grenades, forcing Harris to retreat.

The British were now more determined than ever, and built up a huge army to take down Chinnamalai, with men from Kallikudi and cannons from Madras. With 140 cannons and 30,000 men,  Harris attacked Odaanilai, and surrounded the fort, demanding Chinnamalai to surrender. However, they found that the fort was abandoned, and also found a note from Velappan, whom they had captured. The fact is Velappan was acting as a double agent, for Chinnamalai, while on the British side.  Harris executed Velappan, and also razed the fort to the ground using cannons.

Chinnamalai and his brothers now lived in exile, at a place called Karumalai near Palani, often using disguises to venture into the towns. One of the persons they would often meet was Nallappan a cook, who gave them refuge and food too. It was this very Nallappan who would betray them to the British, informing them of the whereabouts. And on one night when Chinnamalai and his brothers were having dinner, Nallapan signalled the British, who stormed the house from all sides.

An enraged Chinnamalai strangled Nallapan, to death before the British captured him, his brothers and their commander Karuppan. He was taken to the Sangagiri fort, and a 4 person tribunal demanded that he pay taxes, accept the British sovereignity. With Chinnamalai refusing to do so, he was sentenced to death.  And on July 31, 1805, Dheeran Chinnamalai, his brothers and Karuppan were all hanged to death at Sangagiri fort. Another brave son of India, gave up his life fighting the British.

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Hari Singh Nalwa

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“Hari Ragla” two words that struck terror in the hearts of Afghans.  Two words that made Afghan mothers put their kids to sleep with. Two words that just about summed up the man, who was a terror to the Afghans, dealt a death blow to their plans of territorial expansion.  A man who stood out like a colossus in the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, that itself was a galaxy of stellar personalities. A man who even in death, frightened the Afghans, to the extent they fled from the battlefield than face him.

Hari Singh Nalwa, the commander in chief of the Sikh Khalsa army, Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s sword arm. The man who conquered most of  North West India from the Afghans, expanded the Sikh empire beyond the Indus river, right up to the Khyber Pass.

This legendary hero was born in Gujranwala( now in Pakistan), in 1791, to Gurdial Singh Uppal and Dharam Kaur. Raised by his mother, after his father passed away when he was just 7,  he took the Amrit Sanchar and was initiated as a Sikh, when he was 10 years old. At the age of just 14, he impressed Maharaja Ranjit Singh, with his skills in horse riding and shooting, as well as his intelligence.  Ranjit Singh appointed him as a personal attendant. And soon he rose within the ranks of the Army to become a Sardar, commanding 800 horses and footmen. In 1804, he killed a tiger that attacked him with his bare hands, earning the epithet of Bagh Maar.

Hari Singh Nalwa fought around 20 major battles, and each time he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Afghans.  His first major battle was at Kasur in 1807, a strategically significant fort near Lahore, that was a major obstacle for Ranjit Singh.  He showed exemplary courage in the battle, and captured the fort, was granted a Jagir in recognition.  At just 17 years old, he was given indepdendent command of the army, and captured Sialkot from it’s ruler Jiwan Singh, after an intense battle.

He however emerged as a formidable warrior with the Battle of Attock in 1813,  the first major victory of the Sikhs against the Afghans.  Attock was strategically important, a replenishment point for armies crossing the Indus. The campaign to capture it was led by Dewan Mokham Chand, one of Ranjit Singh’s trusted generals,  and Hari Singh took active part in the battle. It was the first major victory for the Sikhs over the Durranis, and along with Attock, the adjoining regions of Hazara-i-Karlaugh, and Gandhgarh too became part of the Sikh Empire. However the attack on Kashmir in 1814, under Maharaja Ranjit Singh himself failed due to the bad weather, delay in arrival of reinforcements, and treachery of the Rajouri chieftains.

In 1816, once again Nalwa took part in the expedition to capture Mahmudkot( now in Pakistan),  a strongly fortified fort. Ranjit Singh approached it from the southern end,  Nalwa along with Diwan Chand, Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, fought in another bitter battle, that led to the conquest of the fort, along with Khangarh and Muzaffargarh. In 1818, Nalwa was instrumental in the capture of Multan, after a fierce resistance from Muzaffar Khan and his sons. When a bitter civil conflict broke out in Peshawar, with Kamran Shah, killing their Barazkai Vazir Fateh Khan, the Sikhs took advantage of it, and captured the city for the first time.

Nalwa was deputed as Governor of Peshawar to keep it under control, he later bought the territories of Mitha Tiwana and Nurpur under the Sikh empire. In April 1819, the Sikhs once again attacked Kashmir, under the command of Kharak Singh, and Nalwa leading the rear guard. After a fiercely fought battle on July 5, 1819, the Sikhs conquered Kashmir. It was a major victory for them, and for 3 nights the cities of Lahore and Amritsar were illuminated. Nalwa later took charge of Kashmir as Governor,  and in 1821 put down a revolt  by the Khakha chief Ghulam Ali.

His most spectacular success, came in Pakistan’s Hazara region at the Battle of Mangala in 1821. Crossing the Kishenganga river at Muzaffarabad with 7000 foot soldiers, he traversed the treacherous mountains, he reached Mangala.  It was now occupied by the Jaduns chief, who controlled the entire Damtaur region, who demanded a tax on all the goods Nalwa as carrying for safe passage. When he refused to pay up, all the tribesmen in that area surrounded and attacked him.  Against a combined tribal force of 25,000, Nalwa stormed their defences, and routed em, inspite of being outnumbered. In the meantime, the Sindh Sagar Doab, controlled from Mankera, by Nawab Hafiz Ahmed Khan, the Afghan governor.  After celebrating Dussehra, Ranjit Singh mounted his attack on this region in 1822,  and Nalwa met him on the banks of the Jhelum river. Mankera was surrounded by around 12 forts, which were built by Hafiz Ahmed’s predecessor, Nawab Mohd Khan. The Sikhs conquered these 12 forts, and only Mankera was left standing.  Leading  an army of 3 units, Nalwa stormed Mankera from the western side, the fort itself was built of mud and burnt brick,  surrounded by a dry ditch. After a 25 day long siege of the fort, Nalwa, finally managed to capture it and the Nawab accepted defeat.

In the meantime, Azim Khan, seeking revenge over the loss of Peshawar and Kashmir, attacked with a huge army at Naushera in 1823. Nalwa captured the  Akora Khattak fort first and then managed to secure the Yousufzai stronghold of  Jehangira, after a fierce resistance. Finally in a very intense battle on the banks of the Landai River, Nalwa along with Ranjit Singh, the Gurkha commander Bal Bahadur, inflicted another crushing defeat on the Afghans. It was a total rout and Nalwa chased them all the way to the Khyber Pass.

With the Afghans now totally dispirited, by Nalwa’s repeated attacks on them, hope came in the form of Sayyid Ahmad, belonging to the Yousufzai tribe.  Ahmad, led the Yousufzai revolt, and Ranjit Singh sent Budh Singh Sandhanwalia to subdue it. The Barakzais of Peshwar, though allies with the Sikhs, were in cahoots with the Yousufzais.  Sayyid arrogantly declared that he would first capture Attock, and then march on to Naushehra.  Nalwa stood guard at Attock, ensuring that he would hold Sayyid at bay till reinforcements came in.  On 14 February, 1827 one of the bloodiest battles ever was fought at Saidu, with cries of ” Allah Ho Akbar” and “Jo Bole So Nihal” renting the air.  For around 2 hours it was total carnage, as the Sikhs and Afghans clashed in one of the bloodiest conflicts ever. Despite much larger numbers, the Afghans were routed by the Sikhs, who went in hot pursuit of them, and Sayyid himself had to flee to the Yusufzai mountains. 8000 Sikhs under Nalwa, routed a much larger Afghan force of around 150,000, and the victors were feted at a large ceremony in Lahore.

In 1835, Dost Mohammed took charge of Kabul, and defeating Shah Shuja at Kandahar, gave a call for Jihad, and set off on a large campaign to wrest back Peshawar from the Sikhs.  On the 10th of May 1835, Nalwa along with Raja Gulab Singh, Monsier Court,  Sardar Tej Singh among others,  led the campaign, and encircled the Afghans in a semi circle. Ranjit Singh however wanted to avoid battle, and sent his Vakils to negotiate with Dost Mohammed.  He managed to win over Dost Mohammed’s step brothers Jabbar and Sultan to his side, rendering him helpless. Knowing his game was up, Dost Mohammed fled to Kabul, via the Khyber Pass,  was a total rout for him.

Battle of Jamrud

In October 1836, Nalwa attacked the village of Jamrud, right at the mouth  of the Khyber Pass.  The Misha Khel Khyberis, the main chieftains of this village, were known for their markmanship and rebellious nature.  Nalwa however managed to subdue them,  and began to strengthen the existing fort, the Sikh empire now extended all the way to Khyber Pass.  Nalwa did not rest on his laurels however, he attacked the rebellious Yusufzai territories and subdued them, occupying Panjtaar.  The chief Fateh Khan, lost all his territories and had to sign an agreement to pay tribute.

Dost Muhammad was now truly alarmed, the Sikhs were right at the mouth of the Khyber, and nothing could really stop them from taking Jalalabad and Kabul. With the Afghans totally helpless before Nalwa’s onslaught, nothing really seemed to stop him reaching all the way up to Kabul. Around the same time, Ranjit Singh’s grandson was getting married in March 1837, most of the troops were attending the wedding. Nalwa though was at Peshawar, as he was suffering from fever. Taking advantage of the occasion, Dost Muhammad, ordered the Afghans to capture the forts of Jamrud, Peshawar and Shabhqadar. Nalwa’s lieutnant, Mahan Singh was in charge of Jamrud, with just 600 men and very limited supplies. When the Afghans attacked and besieged the fort, Nalwa had to leave Peshawar for the rescue of his men.  Though the Sikhs were totally outnumbered, Nalwa’s presence once again gave them the strength, and the Afghans scattered on his arrival. Nalwa however was injured badly in an ambush attack, and had to be carried inside the fort. He told his men not to get the news out of his impending death to the Afghans, till reinforcements arrived from Lahore. Soon enough the army came from Lahore, beating back the Afghans. However Hari Singh Nalwa was no more, the lion had passed away. In his death too, he prevented the Afghans  from taking Jamrud and Peshawar.  After Nalwa’s death, Khyber Pass became the frontier of the Sikh Empire, and Ranjit Singh gave up on further conquests.

Nalwa was an equally capable administrator too,  serving as the Governor of  Kashmir, Greater Hazara,  Peshawar at various times.  He often handled the most troublesome spots in the Sikh empire, known for their volatile nature.  As Governor of Kashmir, he enforced the ban on cow slaughter, as ordered by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He also built many forts, gurudwaras, temples, havelis and sarais, in the places he conquered. The fortified town of Haripur was built by him in 1822, a planned city, with an excellent water distribution system.  He was known for devising an excellent security system for the forts, many Khatri merchants migrated to Haripur, as they found it conducive for trade.  He also built up Gujranwala as a prosperous trading center, and built most of the forts in the Khyber region.  He built the Gurudwara Panja Sahib at the town of Hassan Abdal( now in Pakistan), and donated the gold to cover the dome of the Akal Takht in Amritsar.

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Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar

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All religions, arts and sciences are branches of the same tree. All these aspirations are directed toward ennobling man’s life, lifting it from the sphere of mere physical existence and leading the individual towards freedom.- Albert Einstein

Science and Art though ostensibly belonging to different spheres, overlap in many ways. Both involve ideas, theories, hypotheses, that are tested, for the scientist it is the lab, for the artist it is the studio or his study room. And much like the scientist, the artist too studies various disciplines like history, literature, culture, religion, using the same investigative techniques.  Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was a bridge between the two worlds, one of the greatest Indian scientists of the modern era, who was an equally good writer. To most Indians, his name would be familiar with CSIR, that he founded as well as the awards given out in his name to aspiring scientists.  Yet not many know that he was also an equally good Urdu poet under the name of Seemab, and composed the Kulgeet for Benaras Hindu University in Sanskrit.  As a scientist, he played a major role in ensuring chemical industry is an important part of Indian economy, something he owed a lot to his teacher, the renowned P.C.Ray.

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was born on February 21, 1894 in Bhera, a small town now located in the Punjab province of Pakistan. His father Parameswar Sahai, was a Brahmo, driven by ideology,  and a second master at Anglo-Sanskrit High School in Shahpur district.  With his father passing away when he was just 8 years old, Shanti was bought up by his maternal grandfather, Munshi Pyare Lal, one of the earliest graduates of Rorkee Engineering College. Growing up in his grandfather’s rather large home at Sikandra in UP’s Bulandshahr district, Shanti spent time reading the books in the large private library he had. He would later pass over his grandfather’s entire collection to Lahore University in 1919. He also inherited the passion for engineering and science from his grandfather, especially the instruments, geometry, algebra. His love for literature was more from his mother’s side, which had a rich tradition of poets and writers. The most well known was Munshi Hargopal Tufta, who got the title of Mirza from none other than Mirza Ghalib himself.

Shanti’s schooling was at the A.V.High School in Sikandarabad, and was quite a brilliant student. His father’s friend Lala Raghunath Sahai, persuaded his mother to send him to Lahore, where he was working as the headmaster at Dyal Singh High School.  It was at Lahore that he came into contact with Pandit Shiv Nath Shastry and Abinash Chandra Mazumdar, both of them Brahmos, which in a way influenced his ideology too. Raghunath Sahai, would also be Shanti’s father in law later, and played a major role in shaping his thought process and ideals too.

In 1911, he joined the newly established Dyal Singh college in Lahore, where he was an active member of the Theater Society.  Earning a good reputation as an actor, he also wrote a one act play in Urdu called Karamati, with active encouragement, from Ms.Norah Richards, the English literature professor. His interest in literature continued in life, when after the death of his wife, he wrote a collection of Urdu poems in her memory called Lajwanti.  He joined Forman Christian College in 1913 for his BSc degree, where he took up a Honors course in Physics.

Mr. Shanti Swarup was one of the ablest students in that large class of about 100 students; indeed, I am of opinion that in all-round ability he was the ablest. He distinguished himself in every branch of the work of his class—literary, scientific, dramatic, social and he gave the most complete satisfaction to the Professor by the excellence of his behavior. He is a young man of more than usual ability and I feel sure that if he is given opportunities of developing his talent in some great European or American Centre of Scientific research he will do some remarkable work in science and will thus be in a position to render high service to his country- Welinker, Principal of Dyal Singh College.

After graduation he worked for some time as a Demonstrator in the Physics and Chemistry department of Forman Christian College, and he would later complete his MSc in Chemistry from the same college in 1919.  The Dyal Singh College trust granted him a scholarship to pursue his studies abroad, and he left for London.  He studied at the University College of London, under Professor F.G.Doonan, and was given the degree in 1921.  His main area of study in London was study of adhesion and cohesion in emulsions and his thesis was entitled ‘Solubilities of bi- and trivalent salts of higher fatty acids in oils and their effect on surface tension of oils.’

Returning to India, Shanti joined Benares Hindu University as Professor of Chemistry,  and worked there for three years.  During his stint at BHU, he created an active school of physical chemistry research, penned the University’s Kulgeet in Sanskrit. From BHU he once again moved to Lahore, where he was appointed as Professor of Physical Chemistry and Director of University Chemical Laboratories.  He worked for 16 years at Punjab University, Lahore till 1940, where he produced some of his best work.  While his areas were primarily colloidal chemistry and magneto chemistry,  he also did a lot of work in applied and industrial chemistry.  In 1928 he invented the Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance along with K.N.Mathur, a very sensitive instrument for measuring magnetic properties.

He also did considerable work in industrial and applied chemistry, one of his first projects was to convert bagasse( sugarcane peelings) into cattle fodder, which he did for Ganga Ram, one of the prominent Punjabi industrialists.  Another achievement of his was for Attock Oil Company at Rawalpindi, where they had an issue while drilling for oil. The mud used for their drilling operation would come in contact with saline water and get further solidified, making further work impossible. Shanti added an Indian gum, which lowered the viscosity of mud suspension, and increased it’s stability too against the electrolytes flocculating action.  Ms. Steel Brothers the parent company of Attock Oil, was so pleased, with his solution,  that they offered him a grant of Rs 1.5 lakhs for research on any work related to petroleum.

Bhatnagar used the grant to establish a Department of Petroleum Research at the University,  and this later carried out many studies on petroleum and it’s products.  Some of them included deodorization of waxes, utilization of waste products in vegetable oil. The company later increased the grant amount and extended the period to ten years, impressed by the work that was going on.  He never used any of the grants he receieved for his personal purposes, and utilized it only for strenghtening the research facilities at University.  Along with K.N.Mathur he wrote a book “Physical Principles and Applications of Magneto chemistry” which is regarded as a standard work on the subject. This is what the great chemist P.C.Ray had to say

On turning over the pages of Nature my eyes chanced upon an advertisement of Macmillan’s in which I find your book at last advertised. That the book is of a high standard is indicated by the most excellent review in Current Science by Professor Stoner, who is competent to judge. As far as I know Meghnad’s is the only text book in physical sciences which has been adopted by foreign universities; and it gladdens my heart that another work in physical science is likely to occupy a similar place. My days are practically numbered; and my great consolation is that you, in chemistry, are raising the reputation, abroad, of Indian workers

In 1933, Sir Richard Gregory, editor of Nature, while visiting the universities in India,  drew attention to lack of an appropriate central research organization for development of natural resources and new industries.   It was not just him, even others like Sir C.V.Raman,  Dr.J.C.Ghosh, had proposed for an Advisory Board for Scientific Research, on the lines of DSIR in Britian.  Indian scientists initiated schemes to launch National Institute of Sciences, and provincial Governments of Bihar, Odisha, Madras, too backed this demand.  The then Secretary of State for India, Sir Samuel Hoare, advised the Viceroy Lord Willingdon, to support the idea.  However Willingdon rejected it saying, it was not ncessary. In 1934, the Govt however made a small concession to create an Indian Intelligence and Research Bureau, with a very limited budget. This meant the institute could only do testing and quality control, but not undertake any industrial activity.

When the Bureau was proposed to be abolished during WWII,  Sir Ramaswamy Mudaliar, proposed the creation of a Board of Scientific and Industrial Research with more resources and wider objectives. Thanks to Mudaliar’s persistent efforts, the Board was created on April 1, 1940 for a period of two years and Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was asked to take charge as the first Director, while Mudaliar became the first Chairman.  Allocated an annual budget of Rs 50,000, placed under Commerce Department, by the end of 1940, BSIR had about 80 researchers engaged, of whom around 20 were directly employed.  By 1942, the Institution came up with a number of processes, some of which included purification of Baluchistan sulphur, development of vegetable oil blends as fuel,  development of plastic packing cases for army boots and uniforms.  Bhatnagar persuaded the Government in 1941, to set up an Industrial Research Utilization Committee( IRUC) to transform research findings into action. The Central Assembly in Delhi accepted the reccomendations to constitute an Industrial Research Fund for five years on November, 1941.  And the efforts of Mudaliar and Bhatnagar came to fruit when the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research was founded on September 28, 1942 as an Autonomous body. In 1943, CSIR Governing body approved proposal to set up 5 national laboratories-the National Chemical Laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory, the Fuel Research Station, and the Glass and Ceramics Research Institute. CSIR got a grant of Rs 10 million to establish these laboratories, while Tata Group donated Rs 2 million for the Chemical, Mettalurgical labs.

Post independence, he played a major role along with Homi Bhabha, Vikram Sarabhai, P.C. Mahalanobis to build up the science and technology infrastructure, as well as policies. As Director General of CSIR,  Bhatnagar, also established the Central Food Technology Processing Institute at Mysore, National Mettalurgical Lab at Jamshedpur, Central Fuel Institute at Dhanbad. He also mentored other scientists like Syamdas Chatterjee, Asutosh Mukherjee, Shantilal Banereej at Kolkata, apart from being the Secretary of Ministry of Education. He played a major role in drafting the Scientifc Manpower Comittee Report of 1948, the first ever systematic assesment of the scientific manpower needs of India.  He was also instrumental in establishing the National Research Development Corporation( NDRC), and negotiated with oil companies for setting up refineries in different parts of the country. On January 1, 1955 he passed away at just 60, but not before leaving a very rich legacy in terms of establishing the scientific infrastructure needed for the development of the country.

Source: http://vigyanprasar.gov.in/bhatnagar-shanti-swarup/

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Veer Surendra Sai

When one looks at the history of the freedom struggle in Odisha, one name that would stand out would be that of Veer Surender Sai, who led a tribal revolt in Sambalpur that nearly rattled the British.  A born rebel, Surendra, hailed from the small village of Khinda, and was a Rajput belonging to the Chauhan clan of  Khinda-Rajpur.  His father Dharam Singh, was a descendant of Aniruddha Sai, the fourth Chauhan ruler of Sambalpur. When Maharaja Sai passed away in 1827 AD, Surendra Sai presented his legitimate claim to the throne of Sambalpur, as the Maharaja had no male heir.

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The British however found Surendra too much of an independent thinker for their own good. Predictably they were looking for some one more pliable, and their first choice was the Maharaja’s widow Mohana Kumari. The British had already occupied Sambalpur in 1804 AD after their victory in the 3rd Anglo Maratha War, when Odisha was one of the territories ceded by the Marathas.  The British allowed Mohana Kumari to rule over the State, the decision however led to a lot of resentment between her and other claimants to the throne. With Mohana Kumari proving herself to be incapable, the people themselves revolted against her.

The British put down the rebellion, deposed Mohana Kumari, and sent her to Cuttack in 1833 AD, where she lived as a pensioner. The British then placed another puppet ruler Narayan Singh, one of the offspring on the throne.  However Narayan, by then was already too old, not capable of handling the responsibilities of the state, and soon there was an outright challenge from other members of the Rajpur-Khinda Chauhan clan.  Surender was backed by his uncle Balaram Singh( brother of his father), on the grounds that being the direct descendants, they had a legitimate claim over the throne. The Gond tribals in Sambalpur too revolted against Narayan Singh, who died in September 1849 with no male heir.

Under the Doctrine of Lapse,  Lord Dalhousie annexed Sambalpur, and Surendra Sai, revolted against the British.  Surendra felt he had a legitimate claim to the throne, however the British were wary of his popularity and strong personality. Aware that he would not be the puppet ruler they wanted him to be, the British did their best to keep him away from the throne.  And thus began an intense and epic struggle against the British, that in fact had it’s genesis much earlier in 1827 AD.

The Beginning

Since 1827, Surendra backed by his uncle Balram,  had repeatedly laid claim to the “Gadi” of Sambalpur as the legal heir apparent. However with the British ignoring his claim, Surendra decided to go down the path of total revolt.  His 6 brothers Udyanta, Ujjala, Chabila, Jajjala and Medini too supported him, as did all the local Zamindars and Gauntias.  When Narayan Singh’s men killed the Gond Zamindar of Lakhanpur,  Balabhadra Deo, the furious Gonds too supported Surendra in his revolt. Some of them murdered the unpopular Zamindar of Rampur, Durjaya Singh, a camp follower of Narayan Singh.  Though Surendra had no role in it, the British neverthless implicated him in the case, and he was arrested along with his uncle Balaram and his brother Udyanta Sai.  Sent to Hazaribagh jail in 1840 AD,  Surendra spent as many as 17 years in prison, till the 1857 Revolt, when the mutineers, broke down the prison. His uncle who was his guiding force and mentor, however died in prison itself.

In the meantime, the Zamindars of Sambalpur, as well as the ordinary people, were fed up with some of the oppressive measures taken by the British, after they annexed the state.  The British indiscriminately raised the revenue to be paid by the Tribal Zamindars as well as the Gauntias.  When the 1857 revolt broke out and Surendra Sai was liberated from prison, the tribal masses in Sambalpur, gathered under him.  And this marked the second phase in his long struggle with the British.

1857 Revolt and Later

When the 1857 Revolt broke out and Surendra was released from prison by the rebels,  he was declared a fugitive by the British.  The authorities put a bounty of Rs 250 for  his arrest as well as that of his brother Udyanta.  Surendra however had become a hero for the common people, and returned to a rousing reception in Sambalpur.  Surendra made a petition to Capt R.T.Leigh, the Senior Asst Comissioner of Sambalpur to recognize him as the Raja of Sambalpur and remit his life imprisonment.  However the Odisha Comissioner,  G.F.Cockburn, strongly opposed any kind of amnesty to Surendra Sai, and recommended his deportation. The British bought in more troops and put Surendra under house arrest in Sambalpur.  He however managed to give them the slip and escaped to Khinda village where his brother Udyant was located.

31st October 1857, Surendra began his rebellion against the British, and soon many of the ordinary people, the tribal Zamindars, Gauntias all joined hands with him.  It was primarily a tribal revolt, with the Zamindars of Kolabira, Laidia, Loisinga, Lakhanpur etc, sacrificing all their comforts, and joining Veer Surendra Sai in his guerilla war against the British.  Fighting in the thick jungles of Sambalpur,  some of them lost their lives, while some had their estates confiscated, and some were arrested and hanged. The selfless spirit of sacrifice and heroism shown by the tribals, was Veer Surendra Sai’s greatest source of strength and support.

Surendra organized the rebels into different groups, and soon they began to cut off all the routes of communication used by the British to Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Cuttack. The dawk road to Bombay was blockaded, and the British by now had completely lost control over Sambalpur.  Veer Surendra Sai, regularly harassed the British with his guerilla attacks, and it became difficult for them to venture in to the thick forests. The soldiers were regularly ambushed, and when Capt Leigh undertook the operations, the rebels struck back hard, killing and wounding several of his 50 strong contingent.

Cockburn despatched more forces to Sambalpur, and the Government transferred Sambalpur from the Chota Nagpur division to Orissa division for more effective handling.  With the Chota Nagpur division Comissioner having his hands full, and the difficulties in controlling Sambalpur from the North, it was felt that having it in Orissa, would be better. And by  Dec 19, 1857, it became a part of the Cuttack division. Capt Wood arrived in the meantime from Nagpur with a large cavalry and made a surprise attack on the rebels at Kudopali on Dec 30, 1857.  Though Surendra Sai, managed to escape, he lost one of his brother Chabila Sai, as also about fifty rebels in the skirmish.

Major Bates arrived in Sambalpur on January 7, 1858 to take charge of the situation, and occupied the Jharghati pass connecting Ranchi, that was blocked by Udyant Sai.  Bates destroyed the village of Kolabira, it’s gauntia was arrested and hanged. Captain Woodbridge and Wood then launched another attack on the hill stronghold of the rebels Paharsgira on February 12, 1858. However the rebels managed to counter the British, and Woodbridge was killed, his headless body was later found in the forests.

With the situation in Sambalpur, slipping out of control, the British sent Col Forster in March 1858,  and gave him wide ranging military and civil power.  Forster cracked down hard, blocking the food stocks of the rebels. He convened a meeting of all the neighboring Rajas and Zamindars, and demanded their cooperation in suppresing the revolt of Veer Surendra Sai.  Ujjal Sai, another brother of Surendra Sai, was captured and hanged without a trial at Bolangir.  The Zamindars of Kharsal and Ghens who were sympathetic to Veer Surendar Sai,  were also captured and hanged.  In spite of all the repressive measures and crackdown, though Forster still could not capture Veer Surender Sai.

Major Impey was appointed as Dy. Comissioner of Sambalpur in April 1861, and believed a carrot and stick approach was better suited to end the revolt. He announced a policy of amnesty for all rebels who surrendered in September 1861, except Surendra Sai, his brother Udyant and son Mitrabhanu.  He issued another proclamation in October 1861, promising free pardon to all the rebels who surrendered.  Weary of the long conflict, and seeking a normal, peaceful life, many of the rebels surrendered to the British leaving the jungles.  Impey’s conciliatory approach worked, with many rebels now surrendering, and the local people too more or less reconciled to the inevitability.  The Zamindar of Kolabira, one of Veer Surendra Sai’s strongest supporters, received generous treatment after his surrender and this made many rebels trust the Government’s intentions.  Mitrabhanu surrendered on on January 7th, 1862 and 2 days later  his two brother Udyanta and Dhruva Sai too surrendered.

Surendra Sai once again negotiated with the British authorities for his claim to the throne of Sambalpur. They however rejected it, and and Impey assured him a liberal pension in lieu of that. He then demanded payment of arrears to his soldiers, to which Impey agreed, and soon Surendra surrendered on May 16th, 1862, bringing the long revolt to an end. It was however not the end of the story,  some of the British officers were not satisfied with the conciliatory moves towards the rebels and Veer Surendra Sai.

British officers like Berial, the Superintendent of Police, felt that Surendra Sai should have been charged with dacoity and murder. Pressure was put on the Dy. Comissioner for the arrest of Surendra Sai, and when Major Impey passed away in December 1863,  they saw it as a golden opportunity.  Capt Cumberledge joined as Dy. Comissioner, Sambalpur on January 19, 1864 and soon Surendra Sai, his son and some close followers were arrested on January 23, at their native village of Khinda. His brothers Udayant and Medini too were arrested, and all of them were sent to Raipur for trial.  After what was clearly a farcical and hasty trial, the Comissioner announced Veer Surendra Sai and others guilty, and sentenced them to deportation for life.

Even though the then Judicial Comissioner John Scarlett Campbell, called the trial a farce and the charges as baseless,  Surendra along with 6 others was detained at Nagpur.  Fearing his presence in Sambalpur would provoke another mass uprising, the British kept him at Nagpur till April, 1866 and and thereafter to the Fort of Asirgarh.  Medini passed away at Asirgarh, Dhruva and Mitrabhanu were released on January 1876.  Surendra however had to spend the rest of his life in prison, and it’s believed he passed away there at an unknown date. One of the great revolutionaries, a man who was a terror to the British in Sambalpur, passed away in anonymity in a remote prison.

Veer Surendra Sai was a true valiant warrior against British imperialism, who fought against them till 1862. An inspiring leader of the tribals in Western Odisha,  spent 37 years in prison. His aim was to drive the British out of his native Sambalpur, and though he could not succeed in his goal, he inspired a generation of freedom fighters in Odisha, and Jharkhand later on. A man who gave up the comforts, suffered untold miseries for the cause of his people,  Veer Surendra Sai, was a true hero, worthy of emulation.  When the history of Odisha is written, the resistance led by Surendra Sai, would forever be in letters of gold.

Source: http://magazines.odisha.gov.in/Orissareview/august-2007/engpdf/Page72-75.pdf

Posted in Indian Freedom Struggle, Modern India, Odisha, Revolutionary Movements, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Dr. Hargobind Khorana

Har Gobind Khorana Biography in Hindi | डा.हरगोविंद खुराना की जीवनी

Ever since the existence of earth,and the creation of various animals, birds and humans in the universe, one of the most fundamental questions, that has been asked. How is it that we are so similar  to our parents?  Be it skin color, or facial features or physical build, how is it that we inherit these characteristics from our parents. A question that has prompted scientists of the world to also clone living beings based on certain characteristics.  Apart from humans, birds, animals, scientists have also been able to create new species of trees and crops. And this was based on what we call as genetics or the study of genes across different species. One such scientist was Dr. Hargobind Khorana who won the Nobel in 1968 along with Marshall Nirenberg and Robert Holley, for showing how order of nucleotides in nucleic acids, that carry the cell’s genetic code control the synthesis of proteins.

Born in a small village called Rapur, presently in Multan district of Pakistan’s Punjab province, in 1922, his father Ganpat Rai Khurana was a Patwari, basically a taxation clerk in that village. The youngest of five children, he initially studied in the village school. Though coming from a poor background, his father ensured his children did not miss out on education, taught them to read. He used to study under the village tree, would often have to go to other village homes to get embers for cooking coal.

He later joined DAV Multan, where his teacher Dina Nath Jee, became a father figure of sorts to him, after his own father passed away.  After school, he joined the Govt College  in Lahore, where he took up a scholarship for further studies. After graduating from Punjab University in Bsc Honors in 1943, and later Msc in 1945, he got a Fellowship at Liverpool for doing his Doctorate.

In fact, when Khorana applied for PhD in UK, the only placement he could find was in Liverpool Univ, and he did it from there. He got his PhD in 1948 for his work on Organic Chemistry, where he did research on Bacterial Pigmentation and Alkaloid structures under Roger Beer. He had an open mind when it came to research, apart from his field chemistry he also studied on biology and physics.He believed in adopting the best techniques, and he would spend time in other labs too observing the working there.

After Partition, he came to Delhi as a Refugee, around the same time he got a Fellowship from the Govt of India for further research, at Zurich. Between 1948-49, he spent a post doctoral year at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Zurich  under Professor Vladimir Prelog, who would later win the Nobel  in 1975 for his work on stereochemistry. This was the period, that in fact influenced his thoughts on science. and his philosophical attitude too.

Returning back to India after doing research on Etherene Alkaloid, he however did not have the proper facilities nor environment to carry out further research here. He once again got a Fellowship at Cambridge, where carried out his research with Sir  A.R. Todd who won the Nobel in 1957 for his work on enzymes and Dr. G.W.Kenner. Again this period was when he began to explore proteins and the structure  nucleic acids, which would form the basis for his Award winning work later on. Around the same time, Fred Sanger was working on sequencing insulin, first protein to be done so at Cambridge. Max Perutz and John Kendrew, were working on first x-rays of myloglobin and haemoglobin during the same time. The work of Sanger, Perutz, motivated Dr.Khorana, to study on proteins and nucleic acids at Cambridge.During this time he fell in love with and married Swiss national Esther Elizabeth Silber too.

In 1952, a job offer from Dr. Gordon Shrum of British Columbia made him move all the way to Vancouver on Canada’s West Coast, where he joined the nascent British Columbia Research Center. Though the facilities were limited, the environment offered him enough freedom to explore and discover. It was during this time, that with encouragement from Dr.Shrum and good advice from Dr. Jack Campbell, he formed a seven member team to work on phosphate esters and nucleic acids. Notable biochemists like Arthur Konberg and Paul Berg, soon began to take note of Dr.Khorana’s work.

By 1960 he moved to the University of Wisconsin, Institute of Enzyme Research, which is where his biggest achievement would come.  This is where he elucidated the genetic code, function in protein synthesis. The experiment earlier by Nirenberg and Leder on the triplet nature of the genetic code, was the basis for Khorana’s study.  He confirmed Nirenberg’s findings of the chemical composition of a cell is determined by arrangement of 4 nucleotide. Basically it meant that arrangement of 4 nucleotide on the spiral DNA staircase, was what confirmed a cell’s chemical composition, function. He also showed that nucleotide code is transmitted in groups of 3 called codons, which play a role in production of proteins.

The concept of gene manipulation was again first outlined by Dr.Khorana, way before individual genes were characterized. For his pioneering work on elucidating the genetic code, and function in protein synthesis, he was given the Nobel in Medicine along with Marshall Nirenberg and Robert Holley in 1968. Apart from his work on genetic code, he is also credited for creation of synthetic DNA oligonucleotides.

His  work on synthetic DNA oligonucleotides, would later play a role in creation of artificial genes and primers.This in turn laid foundation for development of the polymerase chain reaction(PCR), which helped in amplification of DNA fragments. He later moved to MIT and in 1976, along with his colleagues achieved first synthesis of an artificial gene in a living cell.

Apart from science, Dr.Khorana also had an interest in Western classical music, which he got from his Swiss wife. He  loved nature, and he would often go for long walks or hiking or swimming.In fact more often than not he , would use the long walks to think through solving any scientific problems.Having spent the rest of his career in MIT, Dr.Khorana passed away in 2011, at age of 89, after a long and sterling career. In spite of his achievements, Dr.Khorana was known for his modest, down to earth attitude, not given to much publicity. The exchange program between University of Madison and Govt of India, Indo-US Science and Tech Forum, has been named in his honor.

Posted in Punjab, Science in India | Leave a comment

Veerapandya Kattaboman

Panchalankurichi is a small village located in Tamil Nadu’s  Thoothukudi district. It gets it’s name from the fact that 5 Pandya chieftains or Pancha Pandyas put up a brave resistance against the Madurai Nayaks in a valley( Kurichi) nearby.  The place was founded by Jaga Veera Pandya, when he saw a hare giving chase to the hounds, and considered it a land of great valor. Known for their bravery, and resistance to invaders, this place would witness the birth of one of it’s greatest sons on January 3, 1760, who became an icon of resistance to British rule, and inspired a generation of freedom fighters.

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Veerapandya Kattaboman, one of the great freedom fighters and revolutionaries, who was a terror to the British, with his lightning raid tactics and stubborn resistance.

Background

His  ancestors originally belonged to Andhra Pradesh, and migrated to a village in Tamil Nadu called Salikulam.  Belonging to what was called the Thogalvar community, they were skilled fighters, known for their stubborn never say die attitude on the battlefield. Kattabommu, was a Chief Guard to then Pandya ruler Jaga Veera Pandian of Veerapandiyapuram( currently Ottapidaram), which also accounts for their name. Loyal, devoted and known for his bravery, Kattabommu gained the confidence of the Pandyan ruler.

With no male heir to succeed him, Jagaveera Pandyan, crowned Kattabommu as his succesor, who named himself as Jagaveera Pandya Kattabommu, and later founded the town of Panchalamkruchi.  He built a fort here with a 12 feet high wall, and 500 feet length, 300 feet breadth, made of black clay, mixed with straw or paddy. Surrounded by thorny bale bushes, the fort was considered quite impregnable and could withstand any form of attack.

Veerapandiya Kattaboman, was the 47th in the line of Kattaboman dynasty rulers, the eldest son of Jagaveera Pandya and Arumugathammal. He had two younger brothers Omaithurai, Thuraisingam and two sisters Easuvaravadivy and Thuraikannu. Crowned as the ruler on February 2, 1790, when he was thirty years, he proved himself to be a wise and capable ruler. Maintaining good relationship with the neighbouring chieftains, he was ably served by his generals Vellaiathevan and Sundaralingam. A devotee of Murugan of Tiruchendur and Jakamma, he had constructed 45 bell towers between Panchalamkurichi and Tiruchendur, that would convey the pooja time, in a relay system. Also a great patron of arts and music, he generously donated to many scholars, musicians, dancers.

Resistance to British

During that time the East India Company had established itself at Fort St.George in Chennai, for doing trading.  In reality they were slowly establishing their rule over India, through a policy of divide and rule. More often they not struck deals with Indian rulers, ensured they were in debt to them, and had to act as per their bidding. One such ruler was the Nawab of Arcot, who ruled over a larger amount of territory in Tamil Nadu.  With the Nawab in full debt to the British, during 1781, the British demanded the right to collect taxes from his domain. Though the Nawab was opposed to the demand, he was helpless, as the British gave themselves the right to collect taxes. The British took advantage of the fact that the Nawab did not have money to pay his soldiers either, and they shrewdly merged his army with theirs.

With the Nawab helplessly acceding to the British request, they slowly began to bring all the rulers of South under their control, using their standard divide and rule tactics. East India Company announced that the Nawab had no authority now, and the Southern rulers were under the direct control of the British. Restrictions were imposed on construction of new forts, or formation of army, in effect the rulers were reduced to plain contractors for the British. Kattaboman was furious at the British skulldudgery, and took a pledge to oppose it till his end.

Soon he began to gather all his neighboring rulers- Nagalapuram, Kolarpatti, Kulathor, the Zamindars of Sivagiri , the Maruthu brothers of Sivaganga, a section of the Ramnad royal family, forming a union against the British. The British however successfully managed to wean away most of the rulers, who in turn advised Kattabomman to make peace with the British and abandon his revolt. The British took advantage of the petty differences between the rulers, turning one against each other.  They turned the Zamorin of Ettayapuram, Ettappa Naicker against Kattabomman, who in turn became one of their most trusted allies.

In spite of the repeated presssure, and the British weaning away his allies, Kattabomman stuck to his stand and refused to pay any tax to them. Matter of fact, he intensified his revolt against the British, and received support from the Maharaja of Ramnad.  When the Maharaja was arrested by the British in 1797, Kattabomman, along with his brother Oomathurai,  gathered forces to attack them at Sivagiri. The British took this as an opportunity to trap and capture Kattabomman.

Encounter with British

Around the same time in 1798 Jackson took over charge as Collector of Tirunelveli, and he managed to win over most of the local Zamindars and Chieftains to his side. Except Kattabomman that is, who expected a formal invitation. Not surprisingly Jackson was annoyed by Kattabomman’s attitude, and in two letters to him during February-April, warned him that his territory would be seized, if he did not pay taxes. Kattabomman however ignored those letters, and a furious Jackson ordered his arrest. He was however advised by higher British authorties to call Kattabomman for talks.

Jackson asked Kattabomman to meet him at Ramanthapuram, which he accepted and proceeded to along with his forces. Jackson however indicated he wanted to meet Kattabomman alone, more a trap to arrest him. Knowing fully well it was a trap, he neverthless walked in alone to meet Jackson, in the palace, leaving his guards outside. A war of words broke out between Kattabomman and Jackson, over paying taxes, which is when he uttered the famous words

“Why do we need to pay tax to you? Have you planted the crops, have you watered them? Did you sow them?”

A heated battle ensured between the British forces and Kattaboman’s army in which a officer Clarke was killed, and his minister Thanapathi Pillai was captured by the British.  Kattabomman wrote a letter to the higher authorities asking them to release Pillai, and after an inquiry into Jackson’s high handed behavior, they released him. Jackson was dismissed and sent back to England, and in January 1799, Lousington took charge as the new Collector.

Lousington once again invited Kattabomman for talks, and he gave him permission for his guards to accompany him. He arrived at Ramanthapuram with his full army, and he refused to meet Lousington, unless given a formal invitation. The Collector insisted that Kattabomman must pay tax, through his revenue officer at least. To which he flatly refused and returned back to Panchalamkurichi .  Left with no option, Lousington, wrote to the authorities and recommended war as the only option against Kattaboman.

The War Begins

5th Sept, 1799, the British under Major Bannerman invaded Panchalamkurichi , at a time when all it’s subjects were celebrating a festival at Tiruchendur. Kattabomman however had advance information of this attack, through his informers, and was ready. Bannerman had earlier asked Kattabomman to surrender to which he defiantly replied

We are the sons of this soil. We live with prestige, honour and dignity and we let our soul die for the prestige, honour and dignity of our land. We don’t bow down to the foreigners. We will fight until death.

One of the most pitched and intense battles was fought, with neither side giving an inch. Facing strong resistance from Kattaboman, the British were forced to retreat, and Bannerman, bided his time, awaiting cannons from Palaymkottai to break down the fort. Once the cannons arrived, the fort could not withstand the assault and broke down. Kattbomman lost his able general Vellaiyathevan, while he himself killed many officers in the British Army.  On the last day, an injured Kattabomman was escorted from the battlefield by his aides, and took shelter in the home of the Kolarpatti Zamindar. However the forces of  Etappa Naicker surrounded it, and once again Kattabomman had to escape. His minister Thanapathi Pillai though was captured, killed at Nagalapuram and his head was placed for display at Panchalamkurichi.

For some time Kattabomman and his men took refuge in the Thirukalampur forest, which came under the Rajah of Pudukottai. Knowing this the British, forced the Rajah to to trace him and hand over to them, or else his kingdom would be destroyed. Under duress, the Rajah ordered a search and on Sept 24, 1799 Katabomman was traced out and arrested. Handed to the British, he was sent to Kayathar prison for custody.

The trial began on October 16, 1799 where the British invited all the local Zamindars, in what was essentially a fabricated trial. Kattabomman, refused to surrender, give up on his self respect, and accused the British of illegal, immoral occupation. When the British offered him amnesty, if he asked for a pardon, Kattabomman shot back

“Do what you want to do, you cowards”.

Finally on October 16th, 1799, from a tamarind tree at Kayathar, Veerapandya Kattabomman was hanged to death. A great son of Bharat gave up his life, he would inspire a generation of freedom fighters and revolutionaries.

Posted in Polygar Wars, Tamil Nadu | 1 Comment

S.N.Bose-The God Particle

SatyenBose1925.jpg

Dhaka  University, 1921

The University had just started functioning, the masters class in Physics was in progress. The reader taking up the class decided to enliven it a bit, by taking up a problem that was at the centerpoint of most scientific discussions then. Planck’s Radiation Law, which described the spectral density of elctromagnetic radiation, emitted by a black body in thermal equlibrium at a given temperature T.

A good twenty one years after Max Planck had proposed it, the law still did not seem to have a solid foundation. Einstein in the meantime had come up with the Photo Electric effect in 1905, where he introduced the concept of photon, making good use of Planck’s law, especially the high frequency part.The reader had an idea, why not reverse what Einstein did, and use the photon instead to explain Planck’s theory, especially the high frequency part. Photons were considered to be identical particles, and the entire Planck Spectrum emerged from it.

The reader – Satyendranath Bose or more popularly known as S.N.Bose.

What emerged from the discussion, would give rise to what is called the Bose-Einstein Statistics. It would lay the foundation for the Bose-Einstein condensate theory. And also a class of particles called Bosons named after him by Paul Dirac.

But then again to call him just a scientist, would be akin to calling Leonardo Da Vinci a mere painter. Much like his other namesake and contemporary, J.C.Bose,  he was a polymath, equally adept in music, literature,mineralogy.

The multi facted genius was born on January 1, 1894 in a middle class Kolkata family, his father Surendranath Bose, an accountant in the East India Railway Company.  The only son in a family that had six daughters after him. Bought up by his mother Amodini Devi, he later joined the New Indian School in the Goabagan neigbhorhood of Kolkata.  Seeing his skills at mathematics, his father encouraged him more by giving problems to solve. Joining the prestigious Hindu School in 1907 at the age of 13,  he soon got recognition as an oustanding student in maths and science.  His maths teacher, believed he could be the next Pierre Laplace.

Soon he joined Kolkata’s prestigious Presidency College, and majored in Applied Mathematics. Again proving to be an outstanding student, graduating in 1913 with distinction. He also learnt German and French, that helped him to read scientific works in those languages.

Into Academia

Bose entry into the world of Academia, was not an easy intiation for him. With World War I breaking out in 1914 all over Europe, scientific journals began to arrive less frequently. This just at a time, when quantum theory, relativity was arriving as a new field of study, and add to that, Kolkata University was still in a nascent stage adopting PhD programs. However the then Vice Chancellor, Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, father of Dr.Shyam Prasad Mukherjee, began to spend funds in establishing professorships and new programs. He also gave scholarships for post graduates, and access to his own private library that had some of the best works on science and mathematics. Bose along with his friend Meghnad Saha, managed to get some of the best books through Paul Bruhl, an Austrian teaching physics at the Bengal Engineering College.

By 1916 end, he started giving applied mathematics lecturers and later in physics too. He was appointed to CV Raman Chair of Physics in 1917, and by 1919, along with Saha, published English translation of  Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. In 1921, he was appointed at the University of Dhaka as Physics Reader, where he made his most famous discovery.

Quantum Statistics

Bose’s greatest achievement was his derivation of Planck’s radiation law, a problem that had occupied the minds of some of the best physicists of that time. Max Planck’s law tried to provide a solution to failure of classical physics, to account for range of electromagnetic radiation frequencies emitted by a hot body. Basically Planck’s theory stated that if energy is quantized- coming in fixed multiples of what is called as Planck’s constant- the theory of radiation could be explained.  In a way that theory gave rise to what we know as Quantum Physics, and would drive the evolution of modern science.

Einstein in 1905 took Planck’s theory, and applied the classical Boltzmann statistics to it, which allowed him to describe the photon. Brilliant as his work was, many leading physicists of the time, rejected it, saying that light could only travel in waves and not particles.  Wave particle duality was still unheard of, the concept that circumstances determine whether light could travel as a wave or particle. It was around this time Bose was preparing to teach Planck’s theory and something did not seem right to him.

What Bose did was replace Boltzmann’s statistics with his own,  where the latter claimed that each particle was different from others. Bose statistical theory claimed that all particles are same, and not different. And he sent the paper called Planck’s Law and Hypothesis of  Light Quanta to Philosophical Magazine. However his thesis was rejected, which was ironical as it would actually prove to be one of the most ground breaking theories ever.

And in 1924, he sent his thesis to Einstein directly stating

I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal and opinion. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have tried to deduce the coefficient 8πν2/c3 in Planck’s Law independent of the classical electrodynamics.

Einstein immediately knew that he was looking at one of the most significant breakthroughs in science. Planck’s quantum law used one of the classical physics factors, 8πν2/c3.  And this mixing up of classical and quantum laws was not easily acceptable to many scientists then. Bose had managed to produce the same factor, without using any classical physics theory, but instead it came from his own hypothesis that photons with equal energy were not distinguishable from each other.

Einstein translated Bose’s work into German, got it published in the journal,Zeitschrift für Physik.  He called it a very important step, actually it was a ground breaking theory, that laid one of the foundations for Quantum Physics.  The more Einstein dwelt over Bose theory, the more he was intrigued by it. He considered the possibility of applying Bose Quantum Statistics to a gas made of atoms to see the effects.

Bose-Einstein condensate

And this led to one of the major breakthroughs, the Bose-Einstein Condensate, where each particle in a collection of particles exists in the same identical quantum state. Roughly this is what happens during formation of a Bose Einstein Condensate

atom particles

At room temperature, the atoms in gas behave like particles.

atom waves

As temperature rises, the atoms gain wave nature, and move closer to each other.

atom waves condensing

As temperature rises more and more, inching to absolute zero, waves merge to form a single super wave.

atom waves condensate

Within a millionth of a degree of absolute zero, the Bose Einstein Condensate forms, all individual atoms have merged.

In December 1946, Paul Dirac coined the word bosons, in honor of Bose for  particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics and fermion in honor of Fermi for particles obeying Fermi-Dirac statistics.

Bose was interested in making science popular too and also strongly supported Indian independence. He believed that a well educated, enlightened population was what could move India on the path to progress. He also promoted Bengali as a medium of instruction, translated many scientific papers into it. Apart from science, he also had a keen interest in English, Bengali literature, and even did research on it.

As Head of Department for Physics at University of Dhaka, in 1926, he made it a hub for scientific research, setting up an X-Ray crystallography lab himself.Along with Meghnad Saha, Bose also published an equation of state for real gases during his stint at Dhaka.

After Partition, S.N.Bose returned to Kolkata where he taught till 1956, and then later became VC of Shantiniketan too. He insisted, that every student should use local materials and technicians to design their own equipment. He later returned to Kolkata where he did research in nuclear physics, and also on organic chemistry. He also worked on applied research, he did great work in extracting helium from the hot springs at Bakreshwar. A true polymath he did research in fields as varied as literature, biotechnology, zoology,antrophology.

In 1959, S.N.Bose was appointed as National Professor, the highest honor for a scholar, and was in the position for 15 years.He  also worked as an advisor to the newly formed CSIR, and was General President of Indian Science Congress. And was good at playing the esraj too a form of musical instrument.

 

 It’s sad that inspite of his pioneering research on Bosons, Quantum Statistics, Bose never got a Nobel Prize.The irony was that scientists who did research on Bosons, Bose-Einstein statistics were given Nobel, but Bose himself did not get it. Jayant Narlikar rated S.N.Bose’s work on particle statistics as one of the Top 10 Achievements of Indian science in 20th century. When asked about the Nobel, S.N.Bose simply remarked – I got all the recognition that I deserve, he was not too hung up on it.The fact that his research would play an important role in scientifc discourse was more important than the Nobel.

 Source: https://www.famousscientists.org/s-n-bose/
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